Friday, June 26, 2020
From the Spanish Inquisition to Now Ethnography of the Subculture of Catholicism in Spain - Free Essay Example
PREFACE Ever since I was a little girl I have been Catholic. From Catholic school as an elementary student, to attending Sunday School classes as I traversed through public high school, I can safely say I have experienced life as an American Catholic. A few months ago I had traveled to Spain as a graduation gift from my dad. I was in Spain with my dad, stepmom, and stepsister from May to June. We were lucky enough to spend an entire two weeks traveling all over Spain. Within those first few days, we all met up with an old friend of my stepmoms that has lived in Spain his whole life. He and his family are all Catholics. In school I had always been aware that Catholicism played a big role in Spain, which was especially emphasized in my history classes. But being present in Spain, and being surrounded by this subculture that breathes throughout the country is what hammered that fact into my brain: that Spain has a deep-rooted subculture of Catholicism. Ever since coming to this realization, Ive wanted to explore deeper into this subculture and how it is different from my subculture here in the United States. I know that Catholicism is a religion that celebrates universally throughout the world, but I wanted to discover the subtle differences between how Spanish Catholics celebrate and how American Catholics celebrate Catholicism. Whenever I think of Catholicism, I think of older, elderly men and women that attend church every single Sunday, as well as families that take their newborn babies to Mass, and how they inevitably leave in the middle of the service to keep them from disturbing the Mass. When I think of Catholicism in Spain, however, its different. I think of beautiful cathedrals, and people of all ages attending Mass. I imagine the presence of tradition being heavy on the congregation as everyone lifts their hearts to God. This, of course, is only an idea that I have created in my head from assumptions I have made as a person from another continent. And until this year, I hadnt experienced anything to change those assumptions. While I was in Spain, I had expected the churches and cathedrals to be absolutely stunning, and not too much different from the cathedrals here in Alabama. I also expected the Masses to either be told in Spanish or Latin, depending on if the cathedral was especially traditiona l or not. I also expected everything that had to deal with the Mass to be serious, maybe even more strict and serious than in the United States. This thought doesnt really make sense because the Church is universal so all the practices have to be held pretty much the same way. What I mean by more serious and strict is how the congregation reacts towards the Mass. I feel that the people attending church are more quiet and respectful when it comes to their young children crying. I also feel that the same demographics will be represented in the service. I believe that a lot of the service will be attended by the elderly, especially since as people get closer in age to dying, they are more likely to stick to their religious and moral beliefs alittle closer than they did as a young adult (White). As a result, these elderly people make up the majority of the catholic congregation. Since the elderly are more set in their ways, they are more likely to favor tradition, so I concluded that th e Spanish Masses would be more steeped in tradition than the American Masses. I was able to handful of churches while in Spain in different locations and cities throughout the country, and I was lucky enough to stand in while a Mass was being held. Before doing so, I had expected solemnity, structure, and beautiful to be present and consistent in each church that I visited in Spain. This, I had expected, would be a very amazing experience to view a similar subculture to my through an outsiders eyes. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Catholicism was first introduced to Spain in the early first century by the Visigoths. The Visigoths were part of the Germanic tribes that took over after the Roman Empire collapsed (Mark). Then by the eighth century and until the fifteenth century, the Arabs and Berbers conquered Spain and held control. The Islamic religion then spread throughout the country during that long period. For the majority of the Middle Ages, Spain was constantly being fought over by the Muslims (then known as the Moors) and the Christians. This period of warfare greatly impacted Spain and is referred to as the Reconquista. After this Reconquista, King Ferdinand the Second and Queen Isabella the First of Castile came into power. By the urging of Queen Isabella, the Spanish Inquisition was put into power in 1478. The purpose of the Spanish Inquisition was to drive out the non-believers from Spain. These non-believers included the Moors, the Jews, the Protestants, and other people labeled as heretics in the eyes of the Catholic Church (Kreger). The counter reformation was an effort in the sixteenth century Spain to keep the Catholic faith alive throughout the country. This counter reformation was successful and the influence of Protestants was greatly diminished. During the eighteenth century was the height of the Catholic Churchs power to the government. Finally, from the nineteenth century and onwards, the Catholic faith as a power over Spain has decreased. This is especially prevalent through the Spanish Civil war, which lasted from 1936-1939, and this war was mainly caused by how much of a role the Catholic Church should have in Spains government. Once the Socialist party took over Spains government fourteen years ago, some legislation that directly goes against what the Catholic Church believes have been passed, which gives evidence as to how important of a role the Catholic Church is in Spains government currently (Phillips). I visited a number of churches and cathedrals while I was in Spain. These churches were the Basilica of Saint Mary of the Chorus in San Sebasti?- n, the Church of Saint Lorenzo in Valencia, and the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. OBSERVATIONAL DATA AND ANALYSIS 25 May 2018 (11:00 p.m.-11:30 p.m.); 27 May 2018 (5:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.); 31 May 2018 (7:50 p.m.-8:30 p.m.); 3 June 2018 (3:30 p.m.-4:00 p.m.); 4 June 2018 (6:30 p.m.- 8:00 p.m.) The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Chorus, 25-27 May 2018 (11:00 p.m.-11:30 p.m.) (5:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) This was the first time that I visited a church in Spain. This church is located in the Old Town part of San Sebasti?- n, which is located in northern Spain. The Old Town had cobblestone pavements that had been there since the city was founded. I could even see the parts of the street where they were still inverted, which was originally so that whenever someone dumped their toilets onto the streets, the fluids would run into the center of the street. In modern times, those canals in the middle of the streets are filled with similar looking cobblestone. Located in the middle of the Old Town is the Bas?Ã lica de Nuestra Se?Ã ±ora del Coro. It was built in the eighteenth century in the Baroque style. Over the years, more modern sculptures have been added, however, such as the sculpture by a famous Spanish artist, Eduardo Chillida (San Sebasti?- n Turismo). There was currently no Mass being held on the 25th of May, especially considering how the church was closed. According to our fam ily friend Javier, people would sit on the steps of the church to drink and have conversations well into midnight. It is part of the culture of that city, to bar-hop after a 10:00 p.m. dinner, and to congregate around the church. Taking part in that little piece of culture was very new to me. In the United States, you have to be 21 in order to drink alcohol, but in Spain you only have to be 18. I was old enough to take part in the night life in Spain. I didnt feel like much of an outsider while sitting on the churchs steps and drinking, but it was definitely a somewhat weird experience to be drinking in front of a church so casually and so late at night. The second time I visited the church, I was able to take a peek inside. The church on the inside (and outside) looked how I had envisioned the old churches of Spain would look. It was beautifully decorated from the ceiling to the floor in Christian imagery. Statues lined every spare inch of the outside of the church, and the inside was beautifully represented in all different types of warm colors like light blue, red, silver, and gold. It also cost money to enter and receive a tour of the church, which was about ?Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬3-5, depending on how long of a tour you wanted. I wasnt able to afford taking a tour at the time, so I was only able to look around for a short time. The Church of Saint Lorenzo, 31 May 2018 (7:50 p.m.-8:30 p.m.)I was able to stand in the back of this church whilst a service was being held. I was not able to stay long because my family and I had to go out to eat dinner. While I stood in the back of the church, I paid enough attention to know that the Mass was being held in Spanish. This church wasnt as beautifully adorned as the one in San Sebasti?- n, but it was still beautiful. I would compare the amount of decoration and traditional imagery to the Cathedral of Saint Paul in Birmingham, Alabama. The Sagrada Familia, 3-4 June 2018 (3:30 p.m.-4:00 p.m.) (6:30 p.m.-8:00 p.m.)I was lucky enough that I was able to view the magnificence of the Sagrada Familia from both the outside and the inside. And I am proud to say that I attended service there as well. In my first visit however, I was only able to view the outside of the Sagrada Familia because all of the tickets had sold out. I have never seen such magnificence in my entire life. The architect, Antoni Gaud?Ã , designed it all so that he could bring glory to the Holy Family. It was his way of showing his faithfulness and respect to the Holy Mother Mary as well. The second time I visited the Sagrada Familia, I was able to buy a ticket to get in. The inside was just as gorgeous, if not more. I visited the basilica at just the right time where the sun was shining through all of the stained glass that adorned every window. It was the most beautiful experience I had ever had. I also found out through my time spent there that anyone can attend Mass there for free on Sundays. I imagine it would be hard to find seating if someone came in late to the service, but to just have the ability to go to church every Sunday at the Sagrada Familia just blows my mind. CONCLUSION The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Chorus, 25-27 May 2018 (11:00 p.m.-11:30 p.m.) (5:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) This basilica confirmed my hypothesis that the churches in Spain are more traditional than the churches here in the United States are. The Church of Saint Lorenzo, 31 May 2018 (7:50 p.m.-8:30 p.m.) This church confirmed my hypothesis that the Masses of at least some churches in Spain are held in Spanish. This church however also brought to my attention that not all churches in Spain are as heavily influenced by tradition as others appear to be. This church more so reminded me of the fancier churches here in Alabama than the beautiful and heavily serious churches I had originally thought Spanish churches would be like. The Sagrada Familia, 3-4 June 2018 (3:30 p.m.-4:00 p.m.) (6:30 p.m.-8:00 p.m.) This basilica was an outlier in my research. This is one of the most famous basilicas in the world because it has taken over one hundred years for its structure to be completed. It is still in construction today. This confirmed all of my theories that the Spanish people are more so heavily influenced than United States Americans to take pride in their Catholicism. That might also be a bias in my part because of where I live and what I have experienced here in Alabama as a Catholic. Overall, this was one of the best experiences I have ever had the privilege to experience. To be able to be an outsider in a place where my very distant ancestors once lived, and to experience the daily life of people that are similar in faith to me has been a blessing. It has opened my eyes as to how people of the same religion can still experience small (or large) differences in their daily lives. WORKS CITED White, Lawrence T. Why are Old People So Religious? Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 16 Feb, 2016, www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/culture-conscious/201602/ . Mark, Joshua J.Visigoth.Ancient History Encyclopedia, 4 Dec, 2018, www.ancient.eu/visigoth. Kreger, Kristin. The Spanish Inquisition. Then Again, 5 May 1997, www.thenagain.info/WebChron/WestEurope/SpanInqui.html. Phillips, Michael. Walking on Water: The Catholic Church, Historical Memory, and Human Rights in Spain. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, vol.3, no.2, 2013, pp.286-310., doi;10.1093/ojlr/rwt040. San Sebasti?- n Turismo. Parte Vieja Donosiarra. San Sebasti?- n Tourism, 2018, www.sansebastianturismo.com/es/hacer/que-ver-san-sebastian/parte-vieja-donostarria
Monday, May 25, 2020
Most people who experience severe trauma, as in military combat, will eventually develop post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). I chose this topic because I have always been interested in PSTD and what causes PTSD, and how to reduce or cure PTSD. I often feel touched or sad for people who have PTSD and I know some people who have PTSD. For people with PTSD, they often get flashbacks of the trauma incident and then they get angry or scared. I want to help them and hand them my support as I learn how to help them. I have family members who have PTSD and PTSD has definitely impacted/affected their lives. Unfortunately, it should not change their lives, but they do. I would like to help them to change their perspective of how they could live through their PTSD and how they can overcome the fear. I know that it would not be easy to move on with their trauma and it takes a lot of time to put it aside. Some people with PTSD never got therapy sessions to help how to overcome or handle their trauma. Often, the people with PTSD would reject therapy because they do not want someone to know their story or feeling uncomfo rtable. I would like to learn more about the topic and maybe become a clinical psychologist in one day. I like to help and support people to recover from their issues. I believe that clinical or counseling psychology is a right place to go and ask for support to recover. This is one of the reasons why I would like to focus on the topic. The misconception means a viewShow MoreRelatedPost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )990 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common anxiety disorder characterized by chronic physical arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts and images of the traumatic event, and avoidance of things that can call the traumatic event into mind (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2014). About 7 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD. Family members of victims can also develop PTSD and it can occur in people of any age. The diagnosis for PTSD requires one or more symptoms to beRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRunning head: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Course Title School Name April 12, 2017 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that many people are facing every day, and it appears to become more prevalent. This disorder is mainly caused by going through or experiencing a traumatic event, and its risk of may be increased by issuesRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to the Mayo-Clinic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, commonly known as PTSD is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that s triggered by a terrifying event Ã¢â¬â either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the eventÃ¢â¬ (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). Post Traumatic Stress disorder can prevent one from living a normal, healthy life. In 2014, Chris Kyle playedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a mental illness that is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. Ã¢â¬Å"PTSD was first brought to public attention in relation to war veterans, but it can result from a variety of traumatic incidents, such as mugging, rape, torture, being kidnapped or held captive, child abuse, car accidents, train wrecks, plane crashes, bombings, or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes(NIMH,2015).Ã¢â¬ PTSD is recognized as a psychobiological mentalRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Mental diseases and disorders have been around since humans have been inhabiting earth. The field of science tasked with diagnosing and treating these disorders is something that is always evolving. One of the most prevalent disorders in our society but has only recently been acknowledged is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Proper and professional diagnosis and definitions of PTSD was first introduced by the American Psychiatric Association(APA) in the third edition of the Diagnostic andRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocial Identity, Groups, and PTSD In 1980, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD,) was officially categorized as a mental disorder even though after three decades it is still seen as controversial. The controversy is mainly founded around the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) and politics. The author believes that a group level analysis will assist in understanding the contradictory positions in the debate of whether or not PTSD is a true disorder. The literature regarding this topicRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd ) Essay1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPost Traumatic Stress Disorder Ã¢â¬Å"PTSD is a disorder that develops in certain people who have experienced a shocking, traumatic, or dangerous eventÃ¢â¬ (National Institute of Mental Health). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has always existed, PTSD was once considered a psychological condition of combat veterans who were Ã¢â¬Å"shockedÃ¢â¬ by and unable to face their experiences on the battlefield. Much of the general public and many mental health professionals doubted whether PTSD was a true disorder (NIMH)Read MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Stats). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a mental disorder common found in veterans who came back from war. We can express our appreciation to our veterans by creating more support programs, help them go back to what they enjoy the most, and let them know we view them as a human not a disgrace. According to the National Care of PTSD, a government created program, published an article and provides the basic definition and common symptoms of PTSD. Post-traumaticRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1780 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmental illnesses. One such illness is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sympathetic nervous system response. A more common name for this response is the fight or flight response. In a person not affected by post-traumatic stress disorder this response activates only in times of great stress or life threatening situations. Ã¢â¬Å"If the fight or flight is successful, the traumatic stress will usually be released or dissipatedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesYim Ã¢â¬â Human Stress 2 December 2014 PTSD in War Veterans Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that is fairly common with individuals that have experienced trauma, especially war veterans. One in five war veterans that have done service in the Iraq or Afghanistan war are diagnosed with PTSD. My group decided to focus on PTSD in war veterans because it is still a controversial part of stressful circumstances that needs further discussion. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD amongst war
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 986 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/02/15 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Bullying Essay Cyber Bullying Essay Did you like this example? Many people around the world now have access to the internet. Teenagers use the internet for many reasons such as socializing, education, and to maintain personal and professional relationships. However, some teenagers misuse the internet for wrong reasons such as cyberbullying and racisms through social media. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Cyberbullying and Internet" essay for you Create order Teenagers should only be allowed to use social media only if they are using it the appropriate reasons. Cyberbullying and racisms happen even to this day because of immature behaviors that teenagers do not realized could cause an effect. There should be a limitation with social media to prevent cyberbullying and racisms. Social media is a bad influence for teenagers. What is social media? Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking is known as social media. However, social media is being used in ways that shape world culture, education and more. Teenagers are often harassing each other through the media. Phoebe prince hanged herself because girls in her school reportedly called her a Ã¢â¬Å"whoreÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"bitchÃ¢â¬ viciously harassing her in person and on Facebook (Holladay 1). If you are not careful, unscrupulous people can target you for cyber bullying and harassment on social sites. By partaking in social networking sites, you are opening yourself up to cyberbullying, lack of productivity, mental health issues and lower grade. Even though there might be several good people out there, there are lots of bad people as well. There are also chances that someone could go online and post an inappropriate picture of him or her that is taken out of context. What might seem innocent enough soon becomes the focus of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s jokes and harassment toward the person. You cannot control what other people post online. Normani Kordei, a member of the girl group on the rise of Fifth Harmony wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve not just been cyber bullied, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been racially cyber bullied with tweets and pictures so horrific and racially charged that I canÃ¢â¬â¢t subject myself any longer to the hateÃ¢â¬ (Hess 1). Racists used inappropriate words and pictures to insult her. Social media has become the easiest platform to insult or harass someone. Teenagers do not take cyberbully seriously. Cyberbully is the negative use of technology to harass, humiliate, and threaten people. Life project found that 26% of teens have been harass through their mobile phone either by calls or text messages. Phoebes reasons for taking her own life were complicated, she struggled with depression and had even attempted suicide once before (Holladay 4). Social Media makes bullying easier for those who are afraid to face to face bully. Lots of teenagers bully their friends by making fake social media account or emails which is easier rather than in person. Also, the adolescent is also a transitional phase where teenagers become vulnerable and have to deal with emotional and physical changes. At this phase itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to deal with what is right and what is wrong. Most of the children do it for fun and relaxation. Teenagers think they can be anonymous on what they do on the internet. Cell phone has been banned in 69% of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s classrooms. The reason is obvious, students will misuse them to cheat, use textese in place of Standard English, cyberbullying and sexting (Thomas and McGee19). Due to the excess use of social media grades of teens are dropping down. Teenagers have admit being using social media during homework reduces the quality of their work. The students who used social media while studying scored lower on tests. Most of the students are found spending time on scrolling through the memes and gifs rather than studying and doing homework. Teachers of classroom fears that cell phones may make it easier for students to engage in certain inappropriate behaviors (Thomas and McGee). Majority of the posts are extremely insignificant and unimportant to our world. Social media is a negative impact for teenagers. Hess stated on her article the Ã¢â¬Å"GhostbustersÃ¢â¬ star Jones temporarily quit twitter after weathering a deluge of racist abuse (1). There racist abusers are teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s fandom of the certain bands group. Social media has teenagers spending countless hours sitting in front of a screen scrolling through otherÃ¢â¬â¢s peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives instead of being productive. Zayn Malik, a member of one direction was being threaten with death and slurs like Ã¢â¬Å"terroristÃ¢â¬ from the so called fans (Thomas and M cGee 2). This comments that teenagers make are so ridiculous. Racisms is not right, and it is never right to call other names. Yet, no actions have been taken with issues like this through social media. Sexting has become common among teenagers. One in five teens have reported sending a nude or seminude photo of themselves to someone in text message (Thomas and McGee 21). The average teenager spends a minimum of 2 hours and 20 minutes on social media every day. One in five teens have reported sending a nude or seminude photo of themselves to someone in a text message (Thomas and McGee 21). The use of emoji has also become the new trend of cyber bullying. EmojiÃ¢â¬â¢s of middle finger, gun, children face with bandages and many other can be used for bullying (Froeschle 383). Teenagers do not know the impact of what they post or send. At some point someone will search for your name and what shows up can sink your reputation. Teenagers must know they are making a choice every time they engage with social media. Slangs words are used everywhere because teenagers think using slang words is easy. Many people, educators included, believe that text ease is destroying the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to write which can affect students writing skills. Social media has teenagers spending countless hours sitting in front of a screen scrolling through other peoples lives. When teenager sees a picture of someone that has passed away on Facebook, instead of calling and asking, they just type Ã¢â¬Å"RIPÃ¢â¬ and a crying emoji.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM.Ã¢â¬ Christianity and Islam are the two largest religions in the world, with over 2 billion Christian, and 1.5 billion Muslim followers. Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ approximately 2000 years ago in Palestine. Bible is collection of 66 books containing a message from God. The Muslim name for God is Allah. Islam is based on revelations received by the prophet Mohammad and originated in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Quran, is the Islamic sacred text. Both are monotheistic religions, which means there is one God. Although Christians believe in Trinity, where God is comprised of three persons: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Islam is a strict monotheism and rejects the concept of Trinity. While Christianity is a most influential in Europe, North and South Americas, Islam is followed by majority in the Middle East and in North Africa. Christianity has three major denominations: Protestant, Orthodox and Catholic. Islam is split into two main sect s: Sunni and Shiite ( Comparison, n.d.). The belief in human nature differ in two religions. Christians believe that all humanity inherited the sin of Adam. Only the death of Jesus could erase this sin. No one is born clean, only through baptism and faith one can be saved ( Christianity, n.d.). In Islam it is believed that Adam was forgiven and all humans born sinless and destined for heaven unless they chose to disobey Him and refuse His mercy. Like Christianity, Islam teaches the continuedShow MoreRelatedChristianity And Islam : Islam1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChristianity and Islam in Premodern Africa Christianity and Islam date back to a time long before the modern era and both have sizable similarities between the two religions. Many of these similarities can be simplified into three subjects; both have books comprised of holy texts written about events taking place during their prophetÃ¢â¬â¢s life, both are believed to have started with God appointed leaders, and both consist of different divisions within their religion. Christianity starting with theRead MoreIslam And Christianity : Christianity And Islam1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProfessor Slattery World Religions November 11, 2014 Islam and Christianity There are 7 billion people living all around the world. Everybody has grown up enriched in different cultures, beliefs, traditions, and social standings. Each person, with their own developed views of the world, following a religion such as Christianity and Islam or specifically choosing not to follow a religion, even have many similarities. Christianity and Islam, both, follow by a sacred book of their GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word althoughRead MoreIslam, Christianity, And Islam1945 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesexponentially is Islam. Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the world and is estimated to grow in the years to come. With Islam spreading across the world and many people converting, this will have an effect on the religion itself; the teachings will be shaped by the cultures and ethnicities of the area. Thus, Islam will differ from country to country. Not only that, with Islam spreading it has caused some controversies. Since a lot of people do not understand Islam, it is often confusedRead MoreIslam : Christianity And Islam Essay1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIslam is one of the second largest religions in the world with Christianity as the first (Catholicism being the largest denomination). A report from the Vatican, in 2008, stated that 19 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is made up of Islam, while Catholics make up only 17.4 percent of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Both Catholicism and Islam have branched off Judaism and share many similarities such as the idea of life after death. Just like Catholicism, Islam is a monotheistic religion which means that theyRead MoreComparing Islam And Christianity And Islam1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat will be different due to preconceptions and fundamental beliefs. Comparing and contrasting Islam and Christianity, is a wonderful example of these differences based on fundamental beliefs. This concept is explored in the rest of this work through critically accessing Christian and Muslim views on the question of origin, identity, meaning and purpose, morality, and destiny. Islam and Christianity are in agreement that the origin of both living things and man were created by God himself. TheRead MoreChristianity and Islam763 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescenturies, there is not an exact number of how many religions exist, but it is closely estimated to be over 4,200. Christianity and Islam are the two largest religions in the world and though they have many similarities, they also have vast differences. Unfortunately it is hard to say or believe if they will ever reconcile because of their differences. Inherited from Judaism, Islam and Christianity are beliefs that believe that God created the world and cares about the behavior and beliefs of human beingsRead MoreJudaism, Christianity, And Islam992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJudaism, Christianity and Islam are three of the most recognized monotheistic religions worldwide. These religions are often referred to as the Abrahamic religions because of their history to the founding father, Abraham. Judaism, Christianity a nd Islam are closely related with varying differences. Christianity was born from within the Jewish tradition, and Islam developed from both Christianity and Judaism. We take a look at some of the major similarities and major differences of these widely practicedRead MoreChristianity vs Islam1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe surface, Islam and Christianity appear to have very little in common, however, as you get deeper into areas such as rituals, beliefs, ethics, founders, and sacred objects, the two show strong mutual similarities, particularly in the fundamental areas. In this essay I will compare and contrast the doctrines that make up the worlds largest and most recognized religions, Christianity and Islam. The word Islam means surrenderRead MoreChristianity, Islam, And Judaism1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChristianity, Islam, and Judaism All three religions believe and worship the same God but they do it in different ways. Judaism happens to be the oldest religion today but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an official creed. They aim to teach you about God, the Messiah, human beings, and the universe which makes Jewish beliefs very important to them. But it is important to understand that being Jewish is more of a race and culture than it is a religion. Some Jewish people may have no interest in Judaism. Judaism hasRead MoreJudaism, Christianity, And Islam1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAubrey Fletcher 3/9/15 Humanities Professor Michaud 417868 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam There are roughly 4,200 different religions in the world today, among them the largest are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. These three religions are more similar then one would think. Christianity is the largest religion in the world with 2 billion followers and are called Christians. Islam is the second largest religion in the world with 1.3 billion followers. They are called Muslims, which means Ã¢â¬Å"one
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Throughout the years, models have been progressively been getting skinnier. Size 6 (UK size 10) was a normal size (Littlejohn). There are many downsides to the super thin models of today. They cause unattainable standards of beauty for people which leads to eating disorders such as bulimia, anorexia, and binge eating. This is affecting models and teenage girls the most, peoples health is being sacrificed for fashion, and it needs to stop. Models are the ones being directly affected by this epidemic. Modeling is hard, so models will do whatever they need to succeed. When youre a model, size zero is whats in demand, what the designers are looking for (Lee). Most models think that it is required and expected of them to have to be hospitalized because they dont eat enough. One model says, No, no. It is my job not to eat. Some have resorted to extreme measures, A couple of the others have resorted to eating tissues. Apparently they swell up and fill your stomach (Clements). No one should ever feel like they need to eat tissues so they can be beautiful. Beauty is relative and just a concept weve made in our heads, so it cant even be defined.The common size of models, a size zero, requires the waist measurements of twenty three inches, which is the average size for an eight year old (Size Zero). Why is this the standard? This epidemic is also an issue for our youth, particularly in young girls. 50% of girls between the ages of 11 and 13 see themselves asShow MoreRelatedEating Disorders1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe modeling industry has taken a toll on young girls across the world today. Models, magazines, television even the radio advertise thin is in. Because of this girls feel pressured that they need to look a certain way in order to look good. People need to start realizing that you can be curvy and still look excellent. Society needs to urge the fashion industry and media to stop portraying the perfect skinny, toothpick image because it is causing a huge array o f health related problems to womanRead MoreThe effects of Steroids Essay2189 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesinto the category of Ã¢â¬Å"anabolic steroidsÃ¢â¬ and are defined by Merriam-Webster as: Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦any of a group of usually synthetic steroid hormones that increase constructive metabolism and are sometimes abused by athletes in training to increase temporarily the size of their muscles.Ã¢â¬ Steroids are nothing new in the world of sports, though the drugs have become increasingly sophisticated with time. The synthesis of testosterone was first achieved in 1930s Nazi Germany, but the initial discovery was greetedRead MoreCorporate Influence on Our Political System2508 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesbillions on labor costs and costly environmental regulations and have effectively canceled their social contact with the public. Jeff Faux writes in the American Prospect, NAFTA thus represents the most extreme example of the so-called neoliberal model, in which supranational rules liberate the private corporate investor from the constraint of democratic public values (Faux, 2003). The general purpose of why corporations exist, is to maximize shareholder value. This economic imperative translatesRead Morethe effect of mass media3481 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesa2-level-level-revision, sociology, mass-media-0, effect-media-content-audiences-and-society | Ã¢â¬ ¦ The effect of media content on audiences and society Before you can log into the site you MUST accept terms and conditions. After studying this section, you should be able to understand: Quick revise the evidence relating to the relationship between screen violence and violence in real life active audience approaches the process of moral panics Mass media effects: the relationship between screen violenceRead MoreAnalylis Primark22310 Words Ã |Ã 90 Pagesthe best of which will be turned into Primarks and the rest sold for a tidy sum to other retailers. It s a good move that should see the chain expand its empire to reach more customers across the UK. PRIMARK: THE MARKET Primark specialise in low prices. Please note that when I say low, what I really mean is INCREDIBLY LOW. A ladies fashion belt for Ã £2, a pair of mens fashion jeans for Ã £8....you re getting the idea. In order for Primark to make a decent enough profit after paying its work forceRead MoreSchool Management System15436 Words Ã |Ã 62 Pageslibrarian will be able to 11 2.4. An issuer will be able to 11 3.Planning 12 3.1 Technology Selection 12 3.2 Approach 16 4. Design: 17 4.1 Architectural Design 18 4.2 Use case Realization: 21 4.3 Database Design: 24 4.4 The Entity-Relationship Model: 27 4.5 Data Flow Diagram: 29 Data Flow Diagram: 34 Book Available 34 4.6 Database Design 36 5.Coding 41 6. Screen Walk-Through: 50 7.Testing 65 8.Maintainance 72 9.Future scope of enhancement in Project: 77 10.References 80 1.IntroductionRead MoreEssay on The Origin of Baseball3478 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesresponsible for coming up with some of the rules of baseball, although they have been changed. November 18, 1853 there was a meeting held to decide who should be on the committee to make all the rules. Dr. Adams, Abraham Tucker, and Duncan Curry were among the ones that were chosen (Stewart, 6-7). They made up 17 rules, which were: the bases should be home, to second base, 42 paces; and from first to third base, 42 paces, halfway; and from home to pitcher not less than 15 paces. The game is to consistRead MoreIkea s Internal And External Environment3102 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesshortages of resource (Zentes and schramm-klien, 2007). However, countries with high inflation rate, demand higher wages, changing the entire value chain. IKEA markets should be closely observed to make strategic decisions benefiting the business. Social Social factors like modifications in the demographic variable such as income, age family size of India significantly influence the strategic decision made by the business. E.g. ageing population is less likely to buy furniture (Mintel oxygen, 2010) whereRead MoreBodie, Kane, Marcus Study Guide Essay40928 Words Ã |Ã 164 Pagesrecent changes due to the financial crisis of 2007-2008. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should have an understanding of the overall investment process and the key elements involved in the investment process such as asset allocation and security selection. They should have a basic understanding of debt, equity and derivatives securities. Students should understand differences in the nature of financial and real assets, be able to identify the major players in the marketsRead MorePrice Discrimination8877 Words Ã |Ã 36 Pagesdownward-sloping demand curve. This means that the firm has some pricing powerÃ¢â¬âa price increase does not send the quantity demanded from the firm to zero. This pricing power is known as monopoly power or market power. The assumption rules out perfect competition, for under perfect competition, a price increase would send the quantity demanded from any particular firm to zero. The first-order conditions for profit maximization entail 0 S c( p ) q( p ) ( p c c( q ( p))) q c( p ) (2) Recall that
Literature is often times used by scholars as a window into the past. From describing cultural norms to affirming historical events, writing can be used for a variety of reasons. The MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, a story from the internationally renown The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, provides its audience with insight into the workings and views of society in 14th century England. The tale follows the mischief of a carpenterÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and her lovers who attempt to gain her affection. The wife, Alisoun, commits acts of adultery which drive the story to its climax, resulting in the majority of the characters, including Alisoun herself, being made fools out of themselves. The array of characters Ã¢â¬â Absolon, Alisoun, Nicholas, and John Ã¢â¬â represent four varying classes of society: the clergy, the women, the scholars, and the lower class, respectively. ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization of these characters reflects their placements in the social hierarchy, providing insig ht into the social order and beliefs in England during the 1300s. The characterization of Absolon, a parish clerk, depicts the image and structure of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. The physical appearance of Absolon, as described by Chaucer, parallels with the aesthetic front of the Church. Chaucer portrays Absolon as Ã¢â¬Å"elegant and gayÃ¢â¬ (3339). Physically, he appears to be a dainty and almost flawless character. Similarly, the Church was considered an elegant and heavenly body on the outside, commonly associated withShow MoreRelatedThe Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the Canterbury tales a collection of short tales in the 14th century. The compilation of stories are told by different characters within the narrative as part of a game proposed by the host. Each individual must tell two stories on their journey and two stories on their way back. Each story tells some aspects of English life during the time and often added satire like qualities to the English life. In particular Chaucer often tells stories with elements of the relationshipRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer913 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer consists of frame narratives were a group of pilgrims that are traveling from Southwark to the shire of St. Becker in the Canterbury Cathedral, tell each other to pass time until they arrive at their destination. During The Canterbury Tales the reader is exposed to many characters that represent all of the social classes of medieval England and the reader gets to know them from t he general prologue to each individual tale. One of these characters is the PardonerRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer2127 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIt is unknown when Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, but it is assumed that he wrote it in 1387. There are many different aspects and themes throughout this paper that are very prominent. One theme that is very important is the importance of company. This entire tale is about twenty-nine pilgrims who all tell tales while on a pilgrimage to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket in Canterbury. The importance of company is that this is a pilgrimage that requires companions and friendship. ThoughRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer introduced and described a variety of fictional characters that lived in the Middle Ages. It was the time period that European civilians were governed by a system called feudalism. Where kings were the head of the s ystem and everyone was categorized in social classes. In the prologue of The Canterbury Tales the first character introduced was the knight. Geoffrey Chaucer depicts the knight correctly by characterizing him as a chivalrous and honorable man,Read MoreThe Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswas published toward the end of his life, Geoffrey ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s Canterbury Tales was his longest and most popular work. The plot is made up of tales told by thirty-one different pilgrims as they embark on a pilgrimage to the shrine of Saint Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. His initial idea was to have each pilgrim tell four stories a piece during the pilgrimage, but Chaucer either died before finishing or decided to change this idea, as only twenty-four tales presently make up the work. The prologue ofRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer is a collection of 24 stories written during the Midd le Ages. The tales were written with the intent of criticizing the functions of societal standards as well as the beliefs of the Church. Ã¢â¬Å"The MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale,Ã¢â¬ one the most popular stories, offers unique insights into the customs and practices of the English middle class during the Middle Ages. The story follows the lives of John, Absolon, and Nicholas, three men who are involved with a beautiful woman namedRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer2221 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin medieval literature is the Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer. This research seeks to examine the life of Chaucer, the Canterbury Tales, and the impact and legacy of both the author and the work. Agnes Copton gave birth to a baby boy c. 1340, whom she named Geoffrey. The baby took the surname of his father John Chaucer, who came from a family of wine merchants. The family relied on strategic relationships to subsidize where they lacked in wealth. Chaucer was fluent in French, ItalianRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer2664 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Canterbury Tales The Canterbury Tales was written by Geoffrey Chaucer in 1392, during the medieval period in Europe. Three important aspects, his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s ties to the court, his schooling and working for royalty (XI), and his love for reading and learning (XII) all combined and enabled him to create his greatest work, The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer includes many different characters, pilgrims, all from very unique walks of life. Although there are not as many women included as men, their storiesRead MoreCanterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCanterbury Tales Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer was a story of not the people themselves but a social statement of how the people of higher standing were viewed by the middle class. In the time that Canterbury Tales was written it was a time of corruption of the Church. There were many clergy members that were mentioned in this story. Each of the characters was unique in the way they went against the standards they should be held to. The most interesting this story was definitely TheRead MoreThe Canterbury Tales By Geoffrey Chaucer1777 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCanterbury Tales takes place in the late 1300Ã¢â¬â¢s also known as the Middle ages. Prior to and at this point in time, people tend to be more conservative and to themselves. Geoffrey Chaucer, the author of these stories does something most authors didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do at this time, he ironically pointed out the flaws of the medieval English society. He does this by using estate satire. The Canterbury Tales is a great example of the B ritish human experience at that point in time. Chaucer does a great job describing
Question: Describe about the Health and Nutrition Needs Assessment? Answer: Introduction Health needs assessment (HNA) is a systematic approach that is taken up for reviewing the health issues that a particular population faces and this method leads to agreed priorities and resource allocation in order to improve health conditions of the population and reduce inequalities (Thompson 2014). HNA is a widely recommended public health tool for providing evidence about a population so that health services can be planned (Pennel et al. 2015). An opportunity is provided for engaging with particular population and enabling them to contribute to service planning and resource allocation (Barth 2015). Certain benefits can be gained from conducting a HNA. These include strengthened involvement of community in taking health related decisions, professional development of experience and skills, better use of resources and improved partnership working (Tomlinson et al. 2013). The present report is a Health Needs Assessment on childhood obesity for 4-5 years old (reception) in Surrey (South East of England). A personal reflection is also presented on the usefulness of health needs assessment. It includes a reflective section on the advantages and the disadvantages of working in a group for carrying out the assessment. Health needs assessment The main aim of the health needs assessment is to give information to plan, negotiate and bring changes in health services for improving the health conditions of the population (Sheehy et al. 2015). The needs assessment has the focus on many services that have the impact on the health of the chosen population. This particular health assessment takes into account the following elements: The chosen population for the assessment The identified health priorities Assessment of a health priority Action planning and strategies to be taken up for health outcomes Measuring the possible impact and choosing the next health priority Chosen population Surrey is located in Suth-East of England, United Kingdom and covers around 1500 square kilometres between Surrey hills to the south and London to the north. The population of Surrey is over a million. Around 85% of the population live in urban areas, covering 15% of the county (cfsurrey.org.uk 2016). Consequently, the children of the county come from different and contrasting backgrounds, starting from very deprived to very well-off. The county can be considered as an affluent one, having a population with better employment, better education and better in terms of health. However, there are many people who have to struggle for maintaining a healthy life. Effectively meeting the needs that the children of the county have with specific vulnerabilities is a difficult job and the authorities have set up strategies in order to take care of the hard situations (noo.org.uk 2016). The target population for this health needs assessment is children having age between 4-5 years in Surrey county and the health complications of the children is focused onto (Healthysurrey.org.uk 2016). . The following chart shows the number of children aged between 0-14 in Surrey: Identified health priorities Children in Surrey have good health conditions on an overall basis. But certain health priorities come up that draws the attention of health care services. The most significant health issue for children of Surrey is obesity. Obesity is a common health complication found among the children below 18 years across the globe (Faintuch and Faintuch 2014). Obesity is the health condition where a person has an accumulated body fat more than what is desirable and having a negative impact on the health (Bray and Bouchard 2014). If the body weight of the person is 20% more than the desirable weight, it is considered to as obesity (Neff et al. 2015). Several health complications are associated with obesity, including increased risks of heart diseases, type 2 diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea (Kiess et al. 2015). Children in Surrey have better than average obesity levels. Around 6.7% of children aged between 4 and 5 years (reception) are obese. The prevalence of obesity is found to be increasing with the rise with socioeconomic deprivation (Healthysurrey.org.uk 2016). Figure 1: Children aged 4-5 years as obese or overweight, 2013/14 (percentage) Source: (www.gov.uk, 2016) Figures from the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) highlights that in Surrey, around 17.6% children aged between 4 and 5 years are overweight or obese. Although chdilhood obesity is common in all communities in Surrey, some sections of the population are at more risk for being obese and developing the psychological and health complications that have association with obesity. Data for childhood obesity, as gathered by NCMP, shows that prevalence of obesity rises with age and therefore the obesity rate for 4-5 year olds (reception) is lower than in 10-11 years old. Boys are vitally more likely to be obese than girls among the age group of 4-5 years. Among the 4-5 years old, obesity has seen reduction to 9.9% from 10.7% for boys. For girls, it has remained stable at 9.0% (mycouncil.surreycc.gov.uk 2016). In Surrey, in 2011, the prevalcne for obesity for 4-5 years was almost twice less than 10-11 years. That is 6.8% in comparison to 14.4%. Among 4-5 years old, obesity has witnessed a slight fall to 6.8% in 2011 from 7.9% in 2007 (Surreyi.gov.uk 2016). Figure 2: Trends and numbers of obese 4-5 year olds (reception) for 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011, 2011/2012 by gender and district Source: NCMP 2007-2012 The NMCP has collected valuable data since the year 2006 and it has identified influences and trends on children obesity. The factors are gender, age, ethnicity and obesity. Analysis of data from the NCMP shows that there is a strong positive relationship between obesity prevalence and deprivation for children in reception year. The increased socio-economic deprivation is measured by the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Obesity prevalence has a significant relation with free school meals. Children who live in areas with higher eligibility rate of free school meals have higher rate of obesity than those who live in areas having low eligibility rate (Surreyi.gov.uk 2016). Figure 3: Percentage of obese 4-5 year olds (reception), 2009/2012 by IMD 2010 Source: NCMP 2009/2012 Childhood obesity also has relation to social class. Children from families with main income earners from professional occupation have low rates of obesity. NCMP also states that variation in childhood obesity prevalence between ethnic groups is also present. Among 4-5 year olds Black African, Black Bangladeshi and Black other boys and Black African and Black Other ethnic girlshave the highest prevalence of obesity (Surreyi.gov.uk 2016). Figure 4: Prevalence of obesity among reception children by ethnic group and gender Source: National Obesity Observatory (NOO) 2012 The key findings from Surrey are: Eventhough the county has a lower prevalence of obese children than neighbouring local authorities, there are large numbers of obese children and overweight children due to the larger population National trends are followed with those living in more deprivation having a higher incidence of obesity Obesity of children aged between 4 and 5 years (reception) is twice less than those aged 10-11 years Boys are at more risk of being obese than girls (www.gov.uk, 2016) Assessment of a health priority for action Obesity is an important public health concern in Surrey, especially with children. This reflects the escalating rates and serious financial and health consequences it brings with it. Of particular concern is the level of the rising trend in obesity in children aged 4-5 years (reception). The estimated annual costs to Surrey Primary Care Trust of diseases concerning overweigth and obesity were 251.3 million in 2007. Handling obesity is essential for meeting the PSA obesity target. Surrey has particular health problems and most of them are due to the size of the population and the huge number of partner organisations in health. The rising trend of obesity has led to mapping of current programs and interventions for preventing the prevalence of obesity among children. However, service planning is lacking an evidence-base for managing childhood obesity (getsurrey.co.uk 2011). Efforts have been made for involving the maximum number of organisations across the geographical location for the consultation process. But there lies some challenges and barriers that affect the current service provision put in place for obese and overweight children. Despite the programmes put forward in local levels for addressing obesity and those that are delivered nationally, there is an increasing prevalence of obesity among children aged 4-5 years (reception). The converted interventions are found to be not effective to the maximum level (Guildford.gov.uk 2016). Action Plan Prevention and interventions for families having more risk of obesity must be stared as soon as possible. This must include interventions at antenatal classes and must be encoursged throughout the schoollife. It is necessary to establish health eating patterns, active lifestyle and family based interventiosn and education. Parent education is important for assessing obesity in children (Swinburn et al. 2015). The following is a strategic action plan for improving the scenario in context to obesity as prevalent among 4-5 year old children in Surrey: Needs identified in Surrey Recommendations / Actions to be taken The advantages of a healthy weight are promoted by implementation of a child health promotion program Provide strong local public health surveillance data on child weight status Identify and put up training for meeting the needs arising from implementation of the program Families need support for ensuring that good weaning practices are taken up Ensure that advice and adequate support is available by promoting feeding guidelines Carers and parents are not aware that the child is obese Implement more surveillance to rasie issues with parents Emotional wellbeign of children and their families are addressed for bringin changes in eating behaviour Provide opportunity to have interaction with parents Education must start early idealy in preschool Children centers must develop role in obesity prevention by healthy lifestyle programs Emphasis must be placed on all families for beign more active and taking up more indoor and outdoor activites Encourage those in contact with children to provide opportunity for active play All schools must provide a healthy environment by provision of health choices of food and the opportunity to be active physically. Ensure that traingin is given to schools for providing resources to the students Review In view of increasing number of children aged 4-5 years being obese, both population-based and individual services are to be taken up for tackling the issue. Interventions would produce effective changes in behaviour due to population based approach. All health organisations must monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions put in place. A list of community-based programmes and initiatives for addressing childhood obesity needs to be evaluated on a regular basis, preferably, yearly. The key indicators for bringing positive changes in the health issue are as follows: A deep understanding of the prevalence of childhood obesity and their behaviours Clearly identified responsibility for considerable actions, with overall governance and leadership agreed by all health care partners All children growing with a healthy weight and having active lifestyle All schools are supported with education by childrens centres, local community and health services Less consumption of unhealthy foods like those with high salt, sugar and fat (Etienne 2014) Robust monitoring of performance would be established by evaluating programmes and having a clear knowledge of the evidence based data. The promotion of health benefits by health and non-health professionals would lead to positive changes in the issue of weight among children, especially 4-5 year olds (reception). Personal reflection The opportunity of taking up the health needs assessment was highly beneficial, according to me and it gave a golden chance for understanding the health issues faced by the particular community. The reason for doing the healths needs assessment was to understand the present scenario of health issues regarding childhood obesity in Surrey. The cost of health care is increasingly changing in recent times. At the same time, there is limitation of resources for health care. It is therefore necessary to chalk out the health issues that the community faces and set up an action plan for bringing changes in a rapid pace. Health conditions can be improved if the needs for health care in that community as accurately assessed. Keeping this point in mind, the present health needs assessment was taken up. I learnt and gathered considerable knowledge from the needs assessment and the areas for improvement. It is needful to undertake certain actions in relation to the health needs assessment as a re sult of the rich experience I had. More planning of strategies that can be effective in this regard would be beneficial. Significant strategies, thereby established would pave the way for better health outcomes. It was a fruitful experience of working in groups for carrying out the health needs assessment in a group. It gave a good chance to build up strong relations with the batchmates and bring coordination amongst each other. I would also like to bring into light the positive and negative sides in working in groups. I feel that the experience was a good one and there were certain advantages of conducting the assessment in a group. The assessment was more productive as the output was complete. The quality of work was not compromised on as every member of my group gave their best towards the completion of the assessment. More resources could be utilised as different members gathered information from different sources. On certain instance, a group member was not well and could not contribute to the assessment. This issue was handled effectively as other members completed the work. Such coordination and substitution is only possible with group work. I learnt new things while working with my b atchmates and there was a good amount of exchange of thoughts and ideas between the team members. This was highly welcomed. Exchange of information increased knowledge and easy flow of information was built on. However, there were some issues faced while working in groups. The main issue was unequal participation. There was also intrinsic conflict among the member in some instances. Decision making was difficult and in some cases I had felt that there could be more chances of my opinion being heard. On the whole, the experience of doing the health needs assessment was a good one. Given an opportunity, I would conduct such an assessment in future again. It would enhance my knowledge and experience and I would have an opportunity to grow personally as well as professionally. References Barth, M. M. 2015. Health and nutrition needs assessment among seniors across congregate dining sites in Southern California. In143rd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (October 31-November 4, 2015). APHA. Bray, G.A. and Bouchard, C. eds., 2014.Handbook of ObesityVolume 2: Clinical Applications(Vol. 2). CRC Press. cfsurrey.org.uk, (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.cfsurrey.org.uk/sites/default/files/file_attach/Surrey%20Uncovered.pdf [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Etienne, C.F., 2014. Countries pledge action to reduce child obesity in the Americas.The Lancet,384(9959), p.2021. Faintuch, J. and Faintuch, S. eds., 2014.Obesity and Diabetes: New Surgical and Nonsurgical Approaches. Springer. getsurrey.co.uk, (2011).Waverley has lowest child obesity rate. [online] Available at: https://www.getsurrey.co.uk/news/local-news/waverley-lowest-child-obesity-rate-4813766 [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Guildford.gov.uk, (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.guildford.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=569p=0 [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Healthysurrey.org.uk, 2016.Healthy Surrey | Surrey has lowest obesity rates among 4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds in England. [online] Available at: https://www.healthysurrey.org.uk/news/surrey-has-lowest-obesity-rate/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Kiess, W., Wabitsch, M., Maffeis, C. and Sharma, A.M. eds., 2015. Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence.Public Health,18(2), pp.67-130. mycouncil.surreycc.gov.uk, 2016. [online] Available at: https://mycouncil.surreycc.gov.uk/documents/s14927/Child%20Obesity%20Report.pdf [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Neff, K.J., Ferrannini, E. and le Roux, C.W., 2015. Treatment of obesity: bariatric surgery.International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, Fourth Edition, Fourth Edition, pp.505-518. noo.org.uk, (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_13082_NCMP_PCT_ClusterMaps.pdf [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Pennel, C. L., McLeroy, K. R., Burdine, J. N., Matarrita-Cascante, D., Wang, J. 2015. Community Health Needs Assessment: Potential for Population Health Improvement.Population health management. Sheehy, G., Aung, Y., Sietstra, C., Foster, A. M. 2015. Near the city but hard to reach: results from a multi-method reproductive health needs assessment in peri-urban Yangon, Myanmar.Contraception,92(4), p. 395. Surreyi.gov.uk, (2016).JSNA Chapter : Child Obesity - Surrey-i. [online] Available at: https://www.surreyi.gov.uk/ViewPage1.aspx?C=resourceResourceID=717cookieCheck=trueJScript=1 [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Surreyi.gov.uk, 2016.Obesity and excess weight prevalence by school year and electoral ward of child residence - Surrey-i. [online] Available at: https://www.surreyi.gov.uk/(F(8_-LZYJQG2un_Uu4btcBtmA4kLS-VHP-fucByBeFNMl_rqc6suk5pCRt5IRiqV_Eb42ygbs6-bKxlXlo3q-2b-XnLeILNRhrCX9vtQbhm7qTZrgVOmed_g4HXv3fd9lfSfWs7g2))/ViewPage.aspx?c=dbdatasetinformationdid=1346v=4478 [Accessed 8 Feb. 2016]. Swinburn, B., Kraak, V., Rutter, H., Vandevijvere, S., Lobstein, T., Sacks, G., Gomes, F., Marsh, T. and Magnusson, R., 2015. Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity.The Lancet,385(9986), pp.2534-2545. Thompson, S. R. 2014. Health needs assessment.The Essential Guide to Public Health and Health Promotion, p. 47 Tomlinson, P., Hewitt, S., Blackshaw, N. 2013. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.Perspectives in public health,133(5), pp. 254-262. www.gov.uk, 2016.Child health profile Surrey.